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Violence Against Women

Violence Against Women

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Violence against women remain on the agenda not only in Turkey but all over the world nowadays. This issue become common problem of humantiy especially in recent years. The first thing that comes to mind when one speaks about violence is using physical force but also psychological violence, sexual violence, verbak violence, economical violence and social violence are the types of violence. Therefore the issue of violence effects everyone and should be important for all societies.

Reasons of Violence

The reasons of violence against women can be considered from two perspectives. Firt one is general reasons and the second oe is individual reasons.

General Reasons

  • Acceptence of violence which commit by men.
  • False culturel believes such as ‘‘violence is an instrument to show power and establish authority of men against women.’’
  • Lack of education, alcohol, substance abuse and gambling
  • Economical problems and unemployment
  • Family and relation problems
  • Negative impacts of media and movies which are elevatory of violence
  • Choosing wrong friend and harmful environment
  • Lack of quality communication
  • Biological problems

 

Individual Reasons

  • Lack of education
  • Lack of problem solving skills
  • Lack of agression control skill
  • Lack of social skills
  • Being excessive fragile, isolated and alone.
  • Lack of self-esteem and interest
  • Lack of communication within the family
  • Excessive authoritarian or comfortable family attitudes
  • Excessive punishment against children
  • Being witness or exposure to violence within the family
  • Physical, psychological and sexual abuse
  • Substance and alcohol abuse
  • Antisocial personality disorder[1]
     

False Facts About Violence Against Women

From sociology to physiology, there are many examples of people collectively know some information wrong by learning fiction as truth. Here are 7 of the biggest errors walking around masquerading as well-known facts about the violence against women.

1. Only women expose to violence in family (?)

According to WHO, the most exposed to individual violence sector is composed from women all over the world.[2] Therefore, the relationship between women and men is double-faced and if someone commit verbal or physical violence to others during fight, both sides effect negatively and victim generally looks as a women although men can also be victims. While men are commiting physical violence, women commit psychologically and verbal violence against men. Only in Turkey, %34 of men expose to violence physically, %56 expose to verbally violence.[3] Therefore, only women expose to violence in family is a false facts, because men can also expose to violence in family.

2. Physical violence is the worst type of violence (?)

Physical violence is considered as the worst of all kind of violence but it should not be forggotten that, physical violence only gives harm to body of human but phychological violence gives harm to soul of human in long-term or verbal violence gives harm to characteristic of human and effects until the end of life. Therefore, physical violence is not only one and important kind of violence.

3. Only married women expose to violence (?)

Marriage status of women who exposed to violence as follows, from this figure can be easily understood that not only married women, also single or divorced women can be expose to violence by men.[4]

4. Educated person never commit violence (?)

According to research which was conducted in Turkey, 2015, %35,5 of women have been exposed to physical violence in a period of their lives and common characteristics of these violent men are educated. Therefore only uneducated men commit violence is false fact but there is a truth that, educated men commit violence less than uneducated man.[5]

5. Cases of violence against women is less in the West (?)

A research conducted with 42.000 women buusing face to face interview method in 2012, European Union member countries and accoridng to result of this study, women exposed to sexual, psychological and/or physical violence. The other research shows that, %33 women of European Union member countries have been exposed to sexual, psychological and/or physical violence by their husband or partner.[6] In addition, there are some rates of violence against women below:

  • İngiltere’de kadınların %64 of English women have been exposed to violence anda buse, %35 of them have exposed to sexual abuse and rape.
  • A research which was conducted in America with worker women shows that, women have exposed to violence or sexual abuse at least one time by employer.[7]
  • %56 of citizens of Belgium know at least one person who have exposed to excessive sexual violence.[8]
  • Finally, the rate of violence against women is %52 in Denmark, %47 in Finland, %46 in Sweden and %35 in Germany.[9]
     

6. Islam affirms violence against women (?)

Other false fact is affirmation of violence against women in Islam. This is absolutely wrong. Oppositely, Islam gives women excessive value and respect. The main problem is misinterpretation of some people of Islamic information and rules. Actually, Islam gives importance to peace therefore all muslim should be aware that violence not only give harm to body. It also gives harm to relation between partners and peaceful family atmosphere. Therefore affirmation of violence against women in Islam is unthinkable. Because of ignorance, traditionalism and individual problems some muslim may commit violence but it means never should be Islam affirms violence against women.

7. Media always has positive impacts and constuctive language upon society about news of violence against women (?)

Until the last ten years, media and society show slience attitudes about news of violence against women.Many of them think that, this problem is private and victim should be slience and hide the truths. Therefore the circle of violence have repeated until nowadays. Society take it normally and media wrote victims as number in newspapers or bu using magazinish and rigid language. However, through some legislation, social changes and awareness in society, attitudes and language of media also changed. It become more sensitive and stand with women.

Results of Violence Against Women

  • Circle of violence
  • Severe injury and physical diability
  • Excessive fear, panic, anxiety, hopelessness, learned helplessness doubt and shame
  • Divorcement
  • Death, homicide to protect him/herself, attemp to suicide or suicidal thoughts
  • Alcohol and substance abuse
  • Eating and sleeping problems
  • Post traumatic stress disorder, depression, psychosomatic disorders
  • Negativities which effect to children and society
     

Conclusion

Unfortunately, many women still feel fear and social pressure upon thmeselves. In spite of expose to kindly violence issue, many of them try to continue their marriage because of social anxiety, family pressure, economical problem, low self esteem and hope to correct their marriage on day.[10]

As it seen, not only in Turkey violence against women is serious problem. It is also common problem of world. Many women have expose to different types of violence everyday and forced to be slience. To be the voice of these women, all people should stand with them and say STOP violence against women and solve this issue through law and heavy punishments, education and awareness, increase the number of women’s shelter and counseling center and support psychosocial action for women.

Endnotes


[1] Hande Çalışkan, Doç. Dr. Emrah İsmail Çevik, “Kadına Yönelik Şiddetin Belirleyicileri: Türkiye Örneği”, http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/516329
[2] Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano, World Report On Violence and Health, http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/42495/9241545615_eng.pdf;jsessionid=F11D66BCBFF3E074DDA945549603F3CE?sequence=1
[3] İnci Boyacıoğlu, “Dünden Bugüne Türkiye’de Kadına Yönelik Şiddet ve Ulusal Kadın Çalışmaları: Psikolojik Araştırmalara Davet”, http://www.turkpsikolojidergisi.com/PDF/TPY/2016_OS/09.pdf
[4] Ayşe Ediz, Şenol Altan, “Türkiye’de Kadına Yönelik Şiddet Üzerine Bir Alan Araştırması”, http://tbbdergisi.barobirlik.org.tr/m2017-2017-1729
[5] Sedat Akkuş, Şeyda Yıldırım, “Erkeklerin Kadına Yönelik Fiziksel Şiddet Uygulamasına Etki Eden Faktörlerin İncelenmesi”, http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/543638
[6] European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, http://fra.europa.eu/ (05 17 2016).
[8] “Avrupa, Kadına Yönelik Şiddet ile Mücadele Etmek İçin İstanbul Sözleşmesi'ni Onaylamalı”, Uluslararası Af Örgütü, https://www.amnesty.org.tr/icerik/avrupa-kadina-yonelik-siddet-ile-mucadele-etmek-icin-istanbul-sozlesmesini-onaylamali
[9] Yusuf Özkan, “8 Mart: Batı’da da Eşitsizlik Her Alanda”, https://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler/2015/03/150308_kadinlar_gunu_batida_durum
[10] “Kadına Yönelik Aile İçi...”.